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Banking on receipts and political declarations

Perceived tenure security and housing investments in Luanda, Angola

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Singumbe Muyeba

18 June 2023



uKESA Librarian 2

Journal article


This paper examines the effects of formal housing delivery receipts and political pronouncements on the perception of tenure security and housing investments within the context of Angola's post-conflict rebuilding and weak institutions for the protection of property rights. The paper investigates Zango 1 residents who were supplied with social housing and delivery receipts called guia de entrega in 2005 following their forced eviction from Boa Vista in 2001. It uses a control group of residents of Paraiso informal settlement, some of whom fought the eviction in Boa Vista and ended up being incorporated into Paraiso. Paraiso began to be settled after an impromptu speech by the governor of Luanda in 2000. A survey (n = 634) was conducted, and propensity score matching and satellite imagery were employed. Results show that the perception of tenure security is higher among Zango 1 households, and investments are substantial, but Paraiso households also have high tenure security and the same dwelling area. The political pronouncement of political leaders and the use of durable materials by households in unregularised subdivisions can confer a high perception of tenure security and influence decisions for housing investments even in the presence of weak institutions.


Abstract based directly on source.


Website References


Built environment




Government programmes

Household and community assets


Human settlements

Informal settlements


Land tenure





Poverty & inequality

Residential density

Service delivery

Tenure security

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